The NMR glossary provides brief definitions and explanations of terms and jargon used on our site.



An animal having disease causing organisms within it and capable of infecting others. It may show no symptoms of the disease itself.

Cell-Mediated Immunity

Immunity, which is dependent on the sensitisation of certain white blood cells, rather than antibodies


Lasting for a long period of time or marked by frequent recurrence, as certain diseases


Observable and diagnosable symptoms of disease

Closed Herd

A herd into which no animals are imported; truly closed herds must not have any biological contact with other herds. This includes never bringing leased animals onto the property, not using bought in embryo transfer recipients, and not accepting colostrum, sit-on or foster calves, or milk from other farms

Coliform Count

Indication of faecal contamination on teats, suggesting poor pre-milking teat preparation, poor housing or both. High coliform counts could also arise from cows clinically or subclinically affected by E.Coli mastitis, where mastitic milk is entering the bulk tank. Fluctuating cell count an Bactoscan values are often associated with increased levels of environmental mastitis


The first milk rich in antibodies – the calf’s first source of immunity. Colostrum may also contain infectious agents for example MAP that causes Johnes disease

Concurrent Infections

When an animal may be infected with two or more infections at the same time

Contagious Disease

An infectious disease communicable by contact with one who has it, with a bodily discharge of such an animal, or with an object touched by such an animal or by bodily discharge or said animal