The NMR glossary provides brief definitions and explanations of terms and jargon used on our site.



A preparation of a weakened or killed pathogen, such as a bacterium or virus, or of a portion of the pathogen’s structure that upon administration stimulates antibody production or cellular immunity against the pathogen but is incapable of causing severe infection

Vaccine (Marker)

The vaccine is labeled in such a way that the antibodies taken from an animal vaccinated with a marker vaccine can be differentiated from antibodies that it may have made from having an infection from that disease

Vaccine (Booster)

The same vaccine that was used in the initial course may need to be repeated at recommended intervals. Exposure to the disease concerned may naturally boost the animal’s immunity if previously vaccinated, although it is less reliable than use of a vaccine


Any of various simple submicroscopic parasites of plants, animals, and bacteria that often cause disease and that consist essentially of a core of RNA or DNA surrounded by a protein coat. Unable to replicate without a host cell, viruses are typically not considered living organisms